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Julio Paulo Tavares ZABATIERO, "Leis do Antigo Israel e Movimientos Populares no Brasil", paper delivered at IASL Conference, Såo Paolo, August 1997: In the 70s and 80s a significant number of popular counter cultural movements grew up in Brazil, trying to change the current socio-economical order. As samples we can name: the Landless Movement (Movimento dos Sem-Terra; MST); a lot of Feminist Movements and Neighbours Movements. Several of these movementes were founded by, or led by, active christians from the Base Communities (Catholic Church) and from the ecumenical institutions tied to Evangelical Churches. The presence of these christians was relevant to the formulation of the programs and ideologies of the movements, inspired by a new way of Bible interpretation called a People's Reading of the Bible. One of the most important biblical themes for these christians was the "Project of God", the title given to the principles and norms extracted from the Law Codes of the Old Testament Torah (Pentateuch). This essay intends to read a brief sample of those laws - extracted from the so-called Deuteronomic Code (Deuteronomy 14,22-15,23) Vll century B.C. - from the perspective of the Semiotic School of Paris (A. J. Greimas and others) informed by important concepts of Mikhail Bakhtin, and in the light of the overall view of society and law formulated by Jürgen Habermas. It is hoped that the essay can contribute to the semiotic understanding of the processes of discourse formation of the law used by counter cultural movements, vis-à-vis the correspondent processes of the Official Law.

167-197: A practically-based model of reason is proposed via a re-analysis of an ideological argument between "liberal" and "radical" feminists over reason and gender, as described by Alison Jaggar (Feminist Politics and Human Nature, 1983). Jaggar's account of ideological disagreement in terms of differences in sustaining paradigms and associated criteria of rationality is criticised as incomplete and incapable of resolving ideological disagreements calling for argument about ends. An alternative account is proposed of relations between reason and knowledge as historically-conditioned praxis reflecting interests, explaining convergence of different paradigms on rational criteria. The argument between Jaggar's "liberals" and "radicals" over reason as a gender attribute and biological essentialism is re-analysed, using familiar and minimally controversial rational categories, and shown to have a practically rational structure capable of objective assessment, and more appropriate to paradigm-based argument. The re-analysis concludes by drawing on recent developments in connectionist modelling and cognitive science to illuminate the proposed model of reason, and on the history of ideas to illuminate the issue of gender and reason. It is suggested that supposedly a-rational cognitive processes such as female intuition are the result of unconscious processing similar to that inseparable from practical rationality; and 18th-century gender associations are contrasted with ancient Greek ones.

Edward H. Ziegler. "Transfer Development Rights in the United States", Liverpool Law Review xviii.2 (1996), forthcoming: This paper surveys the utilization of transfer development rights by local governments in the United States as a selective regulatory technique to control the development rights of private owners. Transfer development rights are examined in the context of downtown redevelopment, preservation of open space, farmlands, environmentally sensitive areas, and historic protection and landmark preservation. Legal issues in the United States related to transfer development rights programs are examined. Particular emphasis is given in the paper to the relationship between the grant of transfer development rights to private owners and constitutional inverse condemnation claims by private owners whose lands are severely restricted by government regulation. e-mail: EZIEGLER@ADM.LAW.DU.EDU

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